Permian Period-life, species and extinction

Basically a hot and dry climatic period the Permian Period lasted from 290 to 248 million years ago. Land vertebrates appeared in significant variations of archosaurs, lepidosaurs, turtles and mammals. Due to extinction of the rain forests of the carboniferous period the earth was mainly with deserts. It is a part of the Paleozoic era and ended with the mass extinction which is the largest in history of the Earth. About 70%v of terrestrial and 90% of marine species suffered from this extinction.

Life of the Permian Period: Marine Life
Marine deposits of the Permian period fossils denoted species of brachiopods, echinoderms, and mollusks. Ammonoids, kinds of cephalopods with shell and fusulinids, a type of foraminiferans were distinct in the Permian period.

Life of the Permian Period: Terrestrial life
In the terrestrial life of the Permian period there are different types of tetrapods, arthropods and fungi. Species like Sigillaria and Lepidodendron were replaced by early conifers and advanced seed ferns. There was a significant appearance of the Conifer groups among which became the ancestors of modern day plants groups. Extensive seed fern forests contributed to high levels of oxygen. Medicinal herbs of modern days like ginkgos and cycads appeared in the Pamerian period. Though at the early part of the Permian period there were the Carboniferous flora but at its end these flora formed to some series of equatorial islands.

Life of the Permian Period: Insects
Cockroaches like insects were dominant in the Pamerian period. Most of the insects were known to have folded and well-developed wings, six legs, digestive system (omnivorous), good eyes, and well developed and long antennae. They had also a receptacle to store sperms and an exoskeleton (chitin-based) to protect and support them. To get advantage over herbivorous species these insects have nice mouth parts. Insects like true bugs and beetles species also appeared in the period.
Dragonflies like Odanta appeared in this period and were counted among the dominant predators.

Amphibious life also found considerable appearances in this period and many of them were the ancestors of the modern day amphibians. Major groups of amphibians include batrachosaurs, lepospondyli, and temnospondyli.

Fauna in the Pamirian period
Amphibians and pelycosaurs dominated the early part of the Pamirian period while the later part of this phase was dominated by dicynodonts and gorgonopsians and the mid part saw flourishing of therapids like dinocephalia. At the end of this period predecessors of dinosaurs appeared known as archosaurs. Cynodonts evolving into mammals too appeared in this period however there were no records of aerial vertebrates found. Carnivorous and herbivores developed in extensive ways with groups like lizards and diapsids. Most of these reptiles were evolved into dinosaurs, pterosaurs and crocodiles. It has been recorded that reptiles grew in abundance and both small and large species appeared.

Extinction of the Pamirian period
The extinction of the Pamirian period is by far the largest. The period ended with the extensive extinction phase. It was recorded that about 70% of the land organisms suffered from this extinction while more than 90% of marine species are included in the Pamerian extinct groups.