The Neogene

Started 23 million years ago the Neogene Period lasted for till present day. Like the other periods of Cenozoic Era this period is also subdivided into different epochs which had major contributions in enriching the features of this period.

Neogene Period: Miocene epoch and Pliocene Epoch
The Neogene Period is subdivided into Miocene epoch and Pliocene Epoch. Each of these epochs has respective features contributing to life forms, species, and geological factors of the Neogene Period.

Neogene Period: The Miocene epoch
This epoch started 25 million years ago and is considered as the 1st epoch of the Neogene period. Having the time span of 20 million years this is the longest epoch of the Cenozoic Era.

Mammals of the Neogene Period: Mammals of the Miocene epoch
Miocene is the epoch of modern mammals. In reality mammals gained their prominence and ruled both land and water in this epoch. Appeared in diverse species thus mammals were the rulers of life forms of this epoch. Giraffes and deer and hyenas appeared in this epoch. They are the predecessors and species of their modern day relatives. Sabre-toothed cats are the dominant hunters of the Miocene epoch. The mammals established themselves in every part of the world including every ecosystem. It can be said that about 50% of the modern day mammals came from this epoch. Most of the mammals are the primitives of the modern day mammals though many of them are now counted in the extinct groups.

Mammals of the sea
Dugongs and whales were abundant in the Miocene seas. The giant sharks known as Carcharocles megalodon or Carcharodon were also the dominating sea creatures of the Miocene seas. Their estimated lengths were of 42 feet or 13 meters. Echinoids, Corals, and Gastropods were too flourished in the seas of the Miocene epoch.

Neogene Period: The Pliocene epoch
This is the final epoch of the Neogene Period and lasted for 3.2 million years being started 5 million years ago. Like the Miocene this epoch has made major contribution to the fauna and flora of the Neogene Period.

Mammals of the Neogene Period: Mammals of the Pliocene epoch
Bovids like gazelle, antelope, goats, sheep, and cattle are the dominating varieties of the mammal fauna of this epoch. Tapirs, rhinoceroses, horses, camels, elephants, Rodents, and peccaries are among the mammals of this Pliocene epoch while beavers and ground-squirrels too dominate the land. The typical mammals of this Pliocene period are Megatherium, Deinotherium, and Macrauchenia. Each of these mammals is estimated to reach the height of at least 3 mts and 6 mts. Stoats, dogs, weasels, and sabre-toothed cats are abundant species of carnivores.
The most interesting part of this mammal fauna is the appearance of the Primates and the early man. So, we are the ancestors of the primitive man of this epoch.

Birds of the Neogene period: crows, owls, ducks, hawks, and sparrows are the dominant species of bird of the Neogene period.

Insects of the Neogene period: Insects too dominate the Neogene period with their wide varieties.